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Study of permanent slide of Opalina:

Habit and Habitat of Opalina:

​​Opalina is a parasite that lives in frogs’ and toads’ rectums. 

Comments on Opalina:

1. It is constantly called rectal ciliate. 

2. It has an oval form that is flattened and slightly narrower in the anterior than the posterior and coated in a thin pellicle. 

3. The cilia that cover the body are evenly spaced, parallel rows that run the length of the body. 

4. The pellicle is evenly dispersed by countless cilia of equal size that are positioned in a small group of longitudinal grooves. 

5. Its cytoplasm is divided into an inner endoplasm and an exterior ectoplasm. 

6. Endoplasm contains many nuclei.. 

7. Myonemes, a type of contractile fiber, are found in ectoplasm. 

8. Absent are the peristome, cytostome, gullet, and contractile vacuole. 

9. Food is absorbed from the host’s contents through the body’s surface as a whole. 

10. Reproduction both sexual and asexual.

11. They are saprozoic and feed on dead things, which points to their commensal role. 

Economic Importance:

  1. Endoparasite of frogs and toads.

Diagram of Opalina

Study of permanent slide(Opalina)
Study of permanent slide(Opalina)

Study of permanent slide of Protozoa (Balantidium) 

Distribution of Balantidium:

 Balantidium is cosmopolitan in distribution.

Habit and Habitat of Balantidium:

 Balantidium coli occurs as a parasite in the large intestine of humans and other vertebrates such as monkeys, pig, camel,sheep, ostrich. Body is oval in shape, length 0.05 mm – 0.8 mm and breadth 0.06 mm- 0.08 mm.

It is abundantly found in the rectal content of the frog.

1. Body is covered with cilia arranged in longitudinal rows of cilia of uniform length arranged in a slightly spiral manner.

2. Protoplasm is differentiated into an octoplasm and an endoplasm.

3. The cytopharynx or gullet is short, elongated and opens into endoplasm

4. The cytopyge or anal opening is located at the posterior end of the body.

5. Nutrition is holozoic

6. Asexual reproduction occurs by transverser binary fission and sexual by conjugation

Economic importance of Balantidium:

-Balantidium coli is the pathogenic species that cause ulcers and dysentry in man, monkey and pigs

Diagram of Balantidium:

Study of permanent slide Balantidium(Protozoa)
Study of permanent slide Balantidium(Protozoa)
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