A conceptualized structure that enables spatial and geographic data to be collected and
analyzed is called geographic information system (GIS). GIS is widely used in different forms of agriculture.
The five main components of GIS are:
- people and
The physical components which helps to operate GIS application are considered as the hardware components like computing devices on which GIS runs. Hardware components can also contain other machinery instruments and other reliable tools.
All types of spatial or geographical data are collected, processed, manipulated, evaluated, controlled and shown with the help of hardware devices. Different types of computing devices are being used in the field of GIS. Main frame computer and mini computers are being highly used in GIS. Along with centralized database configuration, distributed and partially distributed database management systems are being preferred. Large scale Geographical information system are using highly dedicated servers and cloud computing services for the manipulation and storage of data and information. Besides computers, other peripheral devices like printers, plotters, Digitizers, Visual display units are also being used. Apart from this, different other hardware devices like remote sensors, cameras, drones, satellites and GPS(Geographical positioning systems) can be used according to need and necessity of the work.
Software is a series of instructions and data that advise the computer how to run and execute specific tasks. It offers the required features and tools to save, interpret and show geographic information. Software is needed to store, analyze and print information to the user. Different software are needed to examine and manage the geographical information systems. Along with GIS software, Database management system, GUI based application software are used in different sectors to store data that were collected with the help of hardware devices. Apart from that operating systems, word processing software, drawing software, image processing software and graphical enhancement software are commonly used in Software components of GIS.
Software can be further divided into two types: open source (source code can be inspected, updated, and improved by anyone) and commercial software(source code can be inspected, updated, and improved by anyone)
Some of the Open source software used in GIS are:
JUMPGIS/ OpenJUMP ((Open) Java Unified Mapping Platform)
Some of the Commercial GIS software are:
Data is considered as one of the most important of GIS as it is used to find the patterns and make decision. Geographic data and related tabular data can be used in Geographical information system. In companies with high amount of data, they also employ a database management system administrator to only manage, create, and maintain the scattered data to find the meaningful information from those data.
The database management system administrator maintains and create cartographic maps, surveyor’s logs, demographic statistics, geographic references, tactical data files, geographic reports, and descriptions from the field.
Advances in the processing, classification, and accuracy of spatial data
have made it possible for more and more standard digital base maps to become available on various scales.
Manpower that are involved in maintaining and using GIS software and hardware are commonly known as the people in component of GIS. GIS users vary from technological experts developing and maintaining the device
to those using it to support them in their daily work. GIS is almost impossible without the people who run the device and generate ideas and strategies.
If possible, GIS technology should be learned by each and every employee of the office ranging from administrator to managers. However in many companies, they hire a special person who take care of GIS technology which is commonly called as GIS application experts who take care of each and every work that is related to GIS technology.
Different methods are proposed by different people around the globe due to the fact that now there is improvements in computing technologies with new ideas and enhanced methods. A well-designed plan and strategy along with business and corporate rules,