A conceptualized structure that enables spatial and geographic data to be collected and analyzed is called a geographic information system (GIS). It helps to gather, manage, and analyze both spatial and geographical data and helps users to make better decisions by giving better knowledge of data like patterns, relationships, and situations from the given data. Recent GIS applications work with the help of a computing device that allows to create queries, store, analyze, edit data (spatial and non-spatial), and share the outcomes with the help of digital maps and 3d scenes. It displays data relevant to the Earth surface’s position. In simpler term, GIS is defined as the scientific study of concepts, applications, and systems of geography
Scope and importance of GIS:
The scope and importance of Geographic information systems can be seen in different fields:
8. Environment Impact analysis,
10. telecom/network services and
GIS is also used to expand the urban area and planning. new transportation.
Scope and importance of GIS in agriculture:
The one main advantage of using GIS is user can analyze multiple data layers. GIS is mainly made up of five components: hardware, software, data, people, and methods.
Hardware mainly deals with hardware component that is used in the field. Some of the examples of hardware components may be laptop, computer, mobile devices, drones, satellites or GPS devices. Different machinery products, equipment and remote sensor are also being used nowadays.
Software is needed to store, analyze and print information to the user. Along with GIS software like Autodesk, Bentley Systems, ENVI, Esrietc. Database management system, GUI based application software are used in agricultural sectors to store data that were collected with the help of hardware devices.
The above-mentioned devices can be used to scan the agricultural land surface from high altitude. That scanned information can be used to find out different infectious and non-infectious diseases related to plants of specific area. With the help of information collected, farmer can kill or control pathogenic organisms like fungus, mycoplasma, virus, bacterium etc.
Not only the diseases but GIS can help farmer to find out whether the plant is getting enough nutrition or not or how much toxicity is present in plants and their atmosphere. Different study shows that the crop productions is also highly affected by the insect’s infestation. So, GIS can also help the farmer to locate the insect’s infestation and also to measure the moisture level in particular area. This helps to manage the water for irrigation. With the help of GIS, farmer can detect where the moisture level is low or high. So, farmer can add the water to less wet area and stop adding more water to wet area.
Different other variables like type of soil, amount of rainfall, direction of wind and pH, nutrients, water content, moisture, chlorophyll level etc. of plants can be also found out from GIS. If these mentioned data are properly analyzed it will surely maximize the crop production. If farmers used computerized system to analyze the different types of diseases, insect infestation and nutrient deficiency and more focus on individual health of plant, farmers will surely harvest more food grains. GIS helps to minimize risk by predicting the flood, landslides, erosion, droughts etc.
Just like hardware, software and data components, people and methods are equally important components of GIS. The one who manages and maintain the system can always find the solutions to the problem and plans for the future. Different techniques and methods of GIS can also be applied in agriculture.
Depending on the soil structure and soil composition, GIS can be used to provide information that can be used to plan which crops need to be grown in what areas of the field. Use of unmanned aerial vehicle, automated drones, artificial intelligence and robotics in agriculture will surely increase the production of food grains.