Meterology syllabus

Syllabus fromBachelorNote

These syllabus are the updated syllabus and taken from the tribhuwan university Nepal. The syllabus maynot be same to other universities.

Tribhuvan University Institute of Science & Technology

Four Year B. Sc. (General Meteorology and Climatology) Curriculum

Course Title : General Meteorology and Climatology
Course No: MET 101
Nature of the Course: Theory
Year: I year
Full Marks: 100
Pass Marks: 35

Group A: General Meteorology (Theory)

Atmospheric composition, mass and structure:

Total atmosphere, Variations with height, Variations with latitude and season, Variations with time

Mass of the atmosphere:

total pressure, vapor pressure

The layering of the atmosphere:

Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, Exosphere and magnetosphere

Solar radiation and the global energy budget:

Solar radiation, Solar output, Distance from the sun, Altitude of the sun, Length of day

Surface receipt of solar radiation and its effects:

Energy transfer within the earth–atmosphere system, Effect of the atmosphere, Effect of cloud cover, Effect of latitude, Effect of land and sea, Effect of elevation and aspect, Variation of temperature with height

Terrestrial infrared radiation and the greenhouse effect

Heat budget of the earth

Atmospheric energy and horizontal heat transport:

The horizontal transport of heat, Spatial pattern of the heat budget components

Atmospheric moisture budget

The global hydrological cycle


Moisture content, Moisture transport

Evaporation and Condensation

Precipitation characteristics:

Forms of precipitation, Precipitation characteristics: Rainfall intensity, Areal extent of a rainstorm, Frequency of rainstorms, The world pattern of precipitation, Regional variations in the altitudinal maximum of precipitation, Drought

Acid precipitation

Air stability and instability

Atmospheric instability, cloud formation and precipitation processes:

Condensation nuclei, Cloud types, Global cloud cover

Adiabatic temperature changes

Formation of precipitation:

Bergeron–Findeisen theory, Coalescence theories, Solid precipitation

Precipitation types:

'Convective type' precipitation, 'Cyclonic type' precipitation, Orographic precipitation

Thunderstorms and its types

Mesoscale convective systems

Atmospheric motion: principles

Laws of horizontal motion:

The pressure-gradient force, The earth's rotational deflective (Coriolis) force, The geostrophic wind, The centripetal acceleration, Frictional forces and the planetary boundary layer

Divergence, vertical motion and vorticity:

Divergence, Vertical motion, Vorticity

Local winds:

Mountain and valley winds, Winds due to topographic barriers, Land and sea breezes

Planetary-scale motions in the atmosphere and ocean

Variation of pressure and wind velocity with height:

The vertical variation of pressure systems, Mean upper-air patterns, Upper wind conditions, Surface pressure conditions

The global wind belts:

The trade winds, The equatorial westerlies, The mid-latitude (Ferrel) westerlies, The polar easterlies

The general circulation:

Circulations in the vertical and horizontal planes, Variations in the circulation of the northern hemisphere

Group B: Climatology (Theory)

Introduction to the climate system:

Atmosphere, Ocean and land surface, atmospheric temperature, atmospheric composition, weather and climate, Definition and scope of climatology, sub-division of climatology, Factors affecting climate.


Precipitation process, Ice-crystal theory, Collision-coalescence theory, Forms of precipitation, Types of precipitation, Seasonal variation of precipitation, Diurnal variation of precipitation.

Heat exchanges in the atmosphere:

Solar radiation, insolation, terrestrial radiation, heat exchange process, the energy budget of the atmosphere, the effect of radiation at the earth‟s surface, temperature difference between land and sea surface, albedo

Air Masses:

Definition and Characteristics, source region, air mass modification, classification of air mass

Classification of climate, their type and distribution:

Need and objectives of classification, basis of classification, Koppens classification, Thornthwaites classification, Tropical rainforest climate, savanna climate, tropical monsoon climate, Sahara type climate, low-latitude steppe climate, middlelatitude steppe climate, middle-latitude desert climate, Mediterranean climate, china type of climate, temperate oceanic climate, humid continental climate, hot summer climate, humid continental mild summer climate, taiga climate, Tundra climate, ice-cap climate, high land climate.

Climate of Nepal:

East West variation, orographic variation, western disturbances, Convection in pre and post monsoon, summer monsoon.

Climate Change and its Impacts:

Introduction, Green House Gases (GHGs), anthropogenic change of climate, Impact of climate change in Nepal.