Environmental Science syllabus

Syllabus fromBachelorNote

These syllabus are the updated syllabus and taken from the tribhuwan university Nepal. The syllabus maynot be same to other universities.

Tribhuvan University Institute of Science & Technology

Four Year B. Sc. (Environment science) Curriculum

Course Title : Introductory Environmental Science
Course No: ENV 101
Nature of the Course: Theory
Year: I year
Full Marks: 100
Pass Marks: 35

Course Objectives

Unit 1: Introduction to Environmental Science

Environmental Science:

Concept of environment and environmental science, historical development, objective, scope and importance, its relation to other disciplines of science; Multidisciplinary nature of environmental sciences; Environmental issues in Nepal and role of environmental science, state of environmental awareness; Historical and philosophical basis: the interconnectedness of lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.

Relationship between society and environment

Concept of culture and human civilization; Historical development of society and culture: Hunting and gathering, pastoral, agrarian, and industrial society and environment; Mode of production, resource utilization and environment; Population growth and environmental degradation; Use of sociological and anthropological knowledge on environment conservation; Environmental worldviews and ethics, developed countries, developing countries, sustainability

Unit 2: Population and Community Analysis


Concept, history, scope, types, ecological hierarchy; Biosphere: Evolution, realms; Ecosystem: components and factors, life supporting systems, concept of food chain, food web, trophic structure, ecological pyramids; Concept of limiting factors; Liebig-Blackman law; Shelford's law of tolerance.

Population characteristics

Size and density, pattern of dispersion, age structure, natality, mortality, biotic potential; Population dynamics and theory of population growth; Rate of natural increase; Species interaction: Positive and negative; Regulation of population size.

Community characteristics:

Classification and composition; Characters used in community structure: Analytical and synthetics; Concept of ecological dominance; Habitat and niche; Ecological indicators; Keystone species; Ecotone and edge effect; Heterogeneity and equitability; Adaptation: Origin and significance; Ecads; Ecotypes; Ecocline; Speciation and extinction.

Unit 3: Ecosystem Dynamics

Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems:

Structural and functional aspects of forest, grassland, deserts, lentic and lotic environment; Energy sources for ecosystem dynamics; P/R ratio; Ecological efficiency; Energy flow model- simple and Y-shaped model; Application of thermodynamic laws in ecosystems; Productivity and its types; Methods of measuring primary and secondary productivity; Global primary productivity; Biogeochemical cycles: Hydrological, gaseous (oxygen, nitrogen and carbon) and sedimentary (sulphur and phosphorus); Ecological stability: Carrying capacity, persistence, constancy, resilience; Homeostasis and feedback mechanism; Ecosystem regulation; Ecological succession and climax community; Human impacts on ecosystem.

Unit 4: Environmental Chemistry

Environmental Analytical techniques

Volumetric and gravimetric analysis; Potentiometric titration; Conductometric titration; Colorimetric/spectrophotometric analysis; Errors and statistical methods in chemical analysis; Atmospheric Chemistry: Characteristics of the atmosphere; Atmospheric processes and reaction of gases and particulates; Chemistry in ozone depletion; Chemical reactions of global warming; Chemistry of aquatic media: Water in the Environment; Characteristics of water bodies; Major aquatic chemical processes, structure and property of water, solubility; Acid base reactions: general behavior, carbonic acid, pH and solubility; Oxidation-reduction processes; Soil chemistry: Basic concept of colloidal chemistry; Ion exchange reaction in soil; Pesticides: classification, environmental contamination and fate of pesticides in soil.

Unit 5: Atmospheric Environment

Origin, composition and structure of the atmosphere; Meteorological fundamentals: Radiation and heat budget, temperature, pressure, wind, humidity, water vapour, clouds, fog, precipitation; Atmospheric stability; Adiabatic diagrams-slide and parcel method; Turbulence and diffusion; Scales of meteorology; Application of micro-meteorology to vegetated surfaces, urban areas, human beings, animals and airport; Application of meteorological principal to transport and diffusion of pollutants; Scavenging process; Effects of meteorological parameters on pollutants and vice versa; Wind roses; Temperature inversion; Lapse rate; Concept of weather and climate, Weather forecasting; Climate change: Introduction and impacts; Greenhouse effect; Atmospheric circulation; Weather and seasons; Monsoon; Extreme weather events: Thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes and El Nino/ ENSO.

Unit 6: Environmental Earth Science

Relationship between geology and environmental science; Conceptual framework of earth as a closed system; Introduction to geological time scale; Mountain building process; Internal structure of earth; Earth materials (rocks and minerals): Classification, types, composition, formation and abundance; Earth processes: Endogenic and exogenic; Tectonism; Volcanism; Earthquake; Geological agents of change: Wind, water and ice; Landslide and mass wasting.

Soil Science: Concept and relation with environment; Chemical and mineralogical composition of soil; Process and factors affecting soil genesis; Properties of soil: Physical, chemical and biological; Humus: Nature, properties and formation; Soil profile and types; Soil types of Nepal.