These syllabus are the updated syllabus and taken from the tribhuwan university Nepal. The syllabus maynot be same to other universities.
Tribhuvan University Institute of Science & Technology
Four Year B. Sc. (Environment science) Curriculum
Course Title : Introductory Environmental Science
Course No: ENV 101
Nature of the Course: Theory
Year: I year
Full Marks: 100
Pass Marks: 35
- To understand the concept of environmental science
- To acquaint with the society, culture and environment
- To familiarize with population, community and ecosystem dynamics
- To provide knowledge on environmental chemistry
- To provide knowledge on basic geology and atmospheric environment
Unit 1: Introduction to Environmental Science
Concept of environment and environmental science, historical development, objective, scope and importance, its relation to other disciplines of science; Multidisciplinary nature of environmental sciences; Environmental issues in Nepal and role of environmental science, state of environmental awareness; Historical and philosophical basis: the interconnectedness of lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.
Relationship between society and environment
Concept of culture and human civilization; Historical development of society and culture: Hunting and gathering, pastoral, agrarian, and industrial society and environment; Mode of production, resource utilization and environment; Population growth and environmental degradation; Use of sociological and anthropological knowledge on environment conservation; Environmental worldviews and ethics, developed countries, developing countries, sustainability
Unit 2: Population and Community Analysis
Concept, history, scope, types, ecological hierarchy; Biosphere: Evolution, realms; Ecosystem: components and factors, life supporting systems, concept of food chain, food web, trophic structure, ecological pyramids; Concept of limiting factors; Liebig-Blackman law; Shelford's law of tolerance.
Size and density, pattern of dispersion, age structure, natality, mortality, biotic potential; Population dynamics and theory of population growth; Rate of natural increase; Species interaction: Positive and negative; Regulation of population size.
Classification and composition; Characters used in community structure: Analytical and synthetics; Concept of ecological dominance; Habitat and niche; Ecological indicators; Keystone species; Ecotone and edge effect; Heterogeneity and equitability; Adaptation: Origin and significance; Ecads; Ecotypes; Ecocline; Speciation and extinction.
Unit 3: Ecosystem Dynamics
Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems:
Structural and functional aspects of forest, grassland, deserts, lentic and lotic environment; Energy sources for ecosystem dynamics; P/R ratio; Ecological efficiency; Energy flow model- simple and Y-shaped model; Application of thermodynamic laws in ecosystems; Productivity and its types; Methods of measuring primary and secondary productivity; Global primary productivity; Biogeochemical cycles: Hydrological, gaseous (oxygen, nitrogen and carbon) and sedimentary (sulphur and phosphorus); Ecological stability: Carrying capacity, persistence, constancy, resilience; Homeostasis and feedback mechanism; Ecosystem regulation; Ecological succession and climax community; Human impacts on ecosystem.
Unit 4: Environmental Chemistry
Environmental Analytical techniques
Volumetric and gravimetric analysis; Potentiometric titration; Conductometric titration; Colorimetric/spectrophotometric analysis; Errors and statistical methods in chemical analysis; Atmospheric Chemistry: Characteristics of the atmosphere; Atmospheric processes and reaction of gases and particulates; Chemistry in ozone depletion; Chemical reactions of global warming; Chemistry of aquatic media: Water in the Environment; Characteristics of water bodies; Major aquatic chemical processes, structure and property of water, solubility; Acid base reactions: general behavior, carbonic acid, pH and solubility; Oxidation-reduction processes; Soil chemistry: Basic concept of colloidal chemistry; Ion exchange reaction in soil; Pesticides: classification, environmental contamination and fate of pesticides in soil.
Unit 5: Atmospheric Environment
Origin, composition and structure of the atmosphere; Meteorological fundamentals: Radiation and heat budget, temperature, pressure, wind, humidity, water vapour, clouds, fog, precipitation; Atmospheric stability; Adiabatic diagrams-slide and parcel method; Turbulence and diffusion; Scales of meteorology; Application of micro-meteorology to vegetated surfaces, urban areas, human beings, animals and airport; Application of meteorological principal to transport and diffusion of pollutants; Scavenging process; Effects of meteorological parameters on pollutants and vice versa; Wind roses; Temperature inversion; Lapse rate; Concept of weather and climate, Weather forecasting; Climate change: Introduction and impacts; Greenhouse effect; Atmospheric circulation; Weather and seasons; Monsoon; Extreme weather events: Thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes and El Nino/ ENSO.
Unit 6: Environmental Earth Science
Relationship between geology and environmental science; Conceptual framework of earth as a closed system; Introduction to geological time scale; Mountain building process; Internal structure of earth; Earth materials (rocks and minerals): Classification, types, composition, formation and abundance; Earth processes: Endogenic and exogenic; Tectonism; Volcanism; Earthquake; Geological agents of change: Wind, water and ice; Landslide and mass wasting.
Soil Science: Concept and relation with environment; Chemical and mineralogical composition of soil; Process and factors affecting soil genesis; Properties of soil: Physical, chemical and biological; Humus: Nature, properties and formation; Soil profile and types; Soil types of Nepal.