These syllabus are the updated syllabus and taken from the tribhuwan university Nepal. The syllabus maynot be same to other universities.
Tribhuvan University Institute of Science & Technology
Four Year B. Sc. (Geology) Curriculum
Course Title : Fundamentals of Geology, Crystallography and Mineralogy, Structural Geology
Course No: GEO101
Nature of the Course: Theory
Year: I year
Full Marks: 100
Pass Marks: 35
Fundamentals of Geology
The science of geology, scope, its various branches, method of study, application of geology in mineral resource, infrastructure developments, disaster mitigation.
Definition, processes of formation, and classification of minerals
Classification of rock, rock cycle
Probing e Earths interior, internal structure of the Earth, Earths major internal boundaries, the crust, mantle and core, lithosphere and asthenosphere, pressure, temperature and seismic wave velocities inside the earth.
Earthquakes and faults; elastic rebound theory, seismic waves; seismograph, magnitude and intensity of earthquakes, world distribution of earthquakes, forecast and prediction of earthquakes
Introduction to Plate tectonics
Continental margins, ocean basin floor, mid ocean ridge, Ocean trenches; earlier theories on geosynclines and continental drift; global plate systems, seafloor spreading and subduction zones; theories on coral reef development
Gravity and continental crust.
Primary structures: Bedding, cross-laminations, ripple marks. Secondary structures: Faults, Folds, Foliation, Joints
Weathering and mass wasting
Earth's external processes, weathering, soil formation, the soil profile, types and causes of mass wasting
Geological work of running water
Runoff and discharge, geological importance of running water, process of stream erosion and deposition, floods
Groundwater and its geological activities
Groundwater movement, water table, aquifers and aquicludes, wells, springs, geologic work of groundwater,
Glaciers and glaciations
Types of glaciers, glacier erosion and transportation, landforms associated with glaciers
Geological work of sea and ocean
Geological work of sea and ocean and associated landforms
Geological work of wind
Wind erosion, transportation, and deposition, eolian landforms
Crystallography and Mineralogy
Introduction to crystallography
Definition of crystals, Crystal symmentry elements, crystal face, Bravais law, law of constancy of interfacial angles, Crystallographic axes
Internal order in crystals
Symmetry operations, unit cell, lattice; Thirty-two point groups and their symmetry elements; Bravais lattices, screw and glide symmetries, concept of space group and international space notation
Morphology of crystals and Crystal systems and classes
Axial ratios, parameter system of Weiss, Miller indices, forty-eight forms, combination of forms; Crystal systems: Classes and forms of Triclinic, monoclinic, orthorhombic, hexagonal, tetragonal and isometric systems
Crystal growth and twining
Growth of crystals from solution and from a melt under controlled conditions, crystal growth in open fractures, solution cavities, or vesicles, Twining in crystals, different types of crystal twins, causes of twining in crystals, twin laws.
Introduction to mineralogy and physical properties of minerals
Definition of mineral, scope of determinative mineralogy Scalar properties-colour, lustre, and streak, their definition and varieties with examples, specific gravity, determination of specific gravity of pure mineral grains by sink and float method, fluorescence and phosphorescence, magnetic properties–ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, and diamagnetic minerals.
Crystal chemistry of minerals
Vector properties-cleavage, parting, and fracture, their
definitions, mineral examples, hardness-definition, Mohs
scale of hardness, determination of hardness of minerals,
crystallinity and forms of minerals– crystalline,
cryptocrystalline, and amorphous, habit of minerals-
elongated, tabular, flattened, and equant forms of
crystalline and cryptocrystalline aggregates-type examples
and use in identification.
(a) Concept of crystal structure of minerals, Crystal structures and lattices of cubic system; dimorphism, polymorphism, and pseudomorphism, isomorphism and solid solutions.
Chemical properties of minerals
Minerals as a chemical system; native elements, sulphides,
halides, oxides, silicates, titanates, phosphates, arsenates
and vanadates, nitrates, borates and uranates, sulphates
and chromates, tungstates and molybdates, oxalates and
hydrocarbons. Rock-forming (silicate) minerals and their
Introduction to economic minerals of Nepal
Introduction to optical mineralogy
Elements of optics, optics of isotropic medium- refractive medium, Snells law; critical angle; anisotropic media, polarisation and interference of light, Polaroid, polarising microscope-construction and use, magnification and resolving power, construction and use of mica and gypsum plates and quartz wedge, pleochroism and birefringence, optical indicatrices - uniaxial and biaxial indicatrices, behaviour of light in uniaxial and biaxial crystals, optic sign, optical properties of minerals - form, cleavage, fracture, and parting, refractive index and relief, Becke line and its use, twining, colour, and pleochroism, pleochroic forms of common minerals, properties under crossed polarisers -interference colour, twining, and extinction angle, anomalous interference colours, Michael Levy chart and its use in determining thickness, path difference, birefringence, and order of interference colour, interference figures, optic sign of anisotropic medium, dispersion of optic axes in biaxial crystals.
Mineral Genesis & Mineral classification
Formation of minerals by different endogenous and exogenous processes. Rock-forming (silicate) minerals and ore-forming (non-silicate) minerals. Silicate Classifications. Physical and optical character, mode of occurrence and important rock-forming minerals.
Introduction: Definition, scope of structural geology, concepts of detailed structural analysis: descriptive, kinematic, and dynamic analysis.
Geological map and cross-section
Geological map and cross-section, orientation of a line (trend and plunge) and a plane (dip and strike), use of a geological compass in measuring orientation of a line and a plane.
Introduction to stereographic projection and its application in structural geology, plotting a line and a plane, finding the intersection of two planes, apparent and true dips.
Stress and strain
Concepts of stress and strain, their definitions, stress in two dimensions, Mohr circle and its use.
Bedding, conformity, and unconformity, types of unconformity, recognition of various unconformities in maps and crosssections.
Main features of intrusive contacts, sills and dykes, batholiths.
Main features of diapirs and salt domes.
Types of primary sedimentary and igneous structures and their application in structural geology, cross-cutting relationships and younging directions.
Definition, classification of folds: anticline and syncline, antiform and synform, cylindrical and non-cylindrical folds, drag folds, criteria of recognition of folds in the field.
Definition, classification of faults: strike slip, normal, and reverse faults, thrust faults, horst and graben, criteria of recognition of faults in the field.
Definition and classification of joints, study of joints in the field.
Foliation and lineation
Cleavage, schistosity, and foliation, lineations and their classification, relationship of foliation and lineation with other structures in the field.
Concepts of field geology
Topographic and geological map reading, use of geological compass, methods of plotting geological data on the maps and preparation of cross-sections.