Geology syllabus

Syllabus fromBachelorNote

These syllabus are the updated syllabus and taken from the tribhuwan university Nepal. The syllabus maynot be same to other universities.

Tribhuvan University Institute of Science & Technology

Four Year B. Sc. (Geology) Curriculum

Course Title : Fundamentals of Geology, Crystallography and Mineralogy, Structural Geology
Course No: GEO101
Nature of the Course: Theory
Year: I year
Full Marks: 100
Pass Marks: 35

Fundamentals of Geology


The science of geology, scope, its various branches, method of study, application of geology in mineral resource, infrastructure developments, disaster mitigation.


Definition, processes of formation, and classification of minerals


Classification of rock, rock cycle

Earths interior

Probing e Earths interior, internal structure of the Earth, Earths major internal boundaries, the crust, mantle and core, lithosphere and asthenosphere, pressure, temperature and seismic wave velocities inside the earth.


Earthquakes and faults; elastic rebound theory, seismic waves; seismograph, magnitude and intensity of earthquakes, world distribution of earthquakes, forecast and prediction of earthquakes

Introduction to Plate tectonics

Continental margins, ocean basin floor, mid ocean ridge, Ocean trenches; earlier theories on geosynclines and continental drift; global plate systems, seafloor spreading and subduction zones; theories on coral reef development


Gravity and continental crust.

Geological structures

Primary structures: Bedding, cross-laminations, ripple marks. Secondary structures: Faults, Folds, Foliation, Joints

Weathering and mass wasting

Earth's external processes, weathering, soil formation, the soil profile, types and causes of mass wasting

Geological work of running water

Runoff and discharge, geological importance of running water, process of stream erosion and deposition, floods

Groundwater and its geological activities

Groundwater movement, water table, aquifers and aquicludes, wells, springs, geologic work of groundwater,

Glaciers and glaciations

Types of glaciers, glacier erosion and transportation, landforms associated with glaciers

Geological work of sea and ocean

Geological work of sea and ocean and associated landforms

Geological work of wind

Wind erosion, transportation, and deposition, eolian landforms

Crystallography and Mineralogy

Introduction to crystallography

Definition of crystals, Crystal symmentry elements, crystal face, Bravais law, law of constancy of interfacial angles, Crystallographic axes

Internal order in crystals

Symmetry operations, unit cell, lattice; Thirty-two point groups and their symmetry elements; Bravais lattices, screw and glide symmetries, concept of space group and international space notation

Morphology of crystals and Crystal systems and classes

Axial ratios, parameter system of Weiss, Miller indices, forty-eight forms, combination of forms; Crystal systems: Classes and forms of Triclinic, monoclinic, orthorhombic, hexagonal, tetragonal and isometric systems

Crystal growth and twining

Growth of crystals from solution and from a melt under controlled conditions, crystal growth in open fractures, solution cavities, or vesicles, Twining in crystals, different types of crystal twins, causes of twining in crystals, twin laws.

Introduction to mineralogy and physical properties of minerals

Definition of mineral, scope of determinative mineralogy Scalar properties-colour, lustre, and streak, their definition and varieties with examples, specific gravity, determination of specific gravity of pure mineral grains by sink and float method, fluorescence and phosphorescence, magnetic properties–ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, and diamagnetic minerals.

Crystal chemistry of minerals

Vector properties-cleavage, parting, and fracture, their definitions, mineral examples, hardness-definition, Mohs scale of hardness, determination of hardness of minerals, crystallinity and forms of minerals– crystalline, cryptocrystalline, and amorphous, habit of minerals- elongated, tabular, flattened, and equant forms of crystalline and cryptocrystalline aggregates-type examples and use in identification.
(a) Concept of crystal structure of minerals, Crystal structures and lattices of cubic system; dimorphism, polymorphism, and pseudomorphism, isomorphism and solid solutions.

Chemical properties of minerals

Minerals as a chemical system; native elements, sulphides, halides, oxides, silicates, titanates, phosphates, arsenates and vanadates, nitrates, borates and uranates, sulphates and chromates, tungstates and molybdates, oxalates and hydrocarbons. Rock-forming (silicate) minerals and their classification.
Introduction to economic minerals of Nepal

Introduction to optical mineralogy

Elements of optics, optics of isotropic medium- refractive medium, Snells law; critical angle; anisotropic media, polarisation and interference of light, Polaroid, polarising microscope-construction and use, magnification and resolving power, construction and use of mica and gypsum plates and quartz wedge, pleochroism and birefringence, optical indicatrices - uniaxial and biaxial indicatrices, behaviour of light in uniaxial and biaxial crystals, optic sign, optical properties of minerals - form, cleavage, fracture, and parting, refractive index and relief, Becke line and its use, twining, colour, and pleochroism, pleochroic forms of common minerals, properties under crossed polarisers -interference colour, twining, and extinction angle, anomalous interference colours, Michael Levy chart and its use in determining thickness, path difference, birefringence, and order of interference colour, interference figures, optic sign of anisotropic medium, dispersion of optic axes in biaxial crystals.

Mineral Genesis & Mineral classification

Formation of minerals by different endogenous and exogenous processes. Rock-forming (silicate) minerals and ore-forming (non-silicate) minerals. Silicate Classifications. Physical and optical character, mode of occurrence and important rock-forming minerals.

Structural Geology


Introduction: Definition, scope of structural geology, concepts of detailed structural analysis: descriptive, kinematic, and dynamic analysis.

Geological map and cross-section

Geological map and cross-section, orientation of a line (trend and plunge) and a plane (dip and strike), use of a geological compass in measuring orientation of a line and a plane.

Stereographic projection

Introduction to stereographic projection and its application in structural geology, plotting a line and a plane, finding the intersection of two planes, apparent and true dips.

Stress and strain

Concepts of stress and strain, their definitions, stress in two dimensions, Mohr circle and its use.


Bedding, conformity, and unconformity, types of unconformity, recognition of various unconformities in maps and crosssections.

Intrusive contacts

Main features of intrusive contacts, sills and dykes, batholiths.


Main features of diapirs and salt domes.

Primary structures

Types of primary sedimentary and igneous structures and their application in structural geology, cross-cutting relationships and younging directions.


Definition, classification of folds: anticline and syncline, antiform and synform, cylindrical and non-cylindrical folds, drag folds, criteria of recognition of folds in the field.


Definition, classification of faults: strike slip, normal, and reverse faults, thrust faults, horst and graben, criteria of recognition of faults in the field.


Definition and classification of joints, study of joints in the field.

Foliation and lineation

Cleavage, schistosity, and foliation, lineations and their classification, relationship of foliation and lineation with other structures in the field.

Concepts of field geology

Topographic and geological map reading, use of geological compass, methods of plotting geological data on the maps and preparation of cross-sections.