## Syllabus fromBachelorNote

These syllabus are the updated syllabus and taken from the tribhuwan university Nepal. The syllabus maynot be same to other universities.

### Tribhuvan University Institute of Science & Technology

#### Four Year B. Sc. (Physics ) Curriculum

##### Course Title : Optics, Modern Physics and Electronics

###### Course No: PHY201

Nature of the Course: Theory

Year: IIyear

Full Marks:100

Pass Marks: 35

## Course Objectives

At the end of this course the students will be able to acquire sufficient basic knowledge on such topics in Physics as Optics, Modern Physics and Electronics and apply their knowledge to learning major courses

### Optics

#### 1. Wave Nature of Light:

1.1 Nature of light, 1.2 Huygen's wave theory and its application for propagation of waves

#### 2. Aberration at Spherical Surfaces:

2.1 Refraction through spherical surfaces from Huygen's wave theory, 2.2 chromatic aberrations; astigmatism, coma, curvature, distortion and their elimination, 2.3 Ramsden's and Huygen's eyepieces

#### 3. Interference:

3.1 Condition for obtaining interference, 3.2 spatial and temporal coherence, 3.3 interference by division of wave front, Fresnel's biprism, Lloyd's mirror, 3.4 division of amplitude, thin and wedge films, Newton's ring, Michelson interferometer, Fabry-Perot interferometer, 3.5 intensity distribution, 3.6 antireflection gratings

#### 4. Diffraction:

4.1 Huygen's principle, 4.2 Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction, 4.3 Fresnel's diffraction: zone plate, circular aperture, straight edge, disc. 4.4 Fraunhoffer's diffraction: diffraction through a single and double slit, circular aperture and disc, 4.5 dispersive and resolving power of grating, 4.6 microscope and telescope

#### 5. Polarization:

5.1 Unpolarized plane, circular and elliptically polarized light, double refraction, crystal polarizer, 5.2 Malus law, polarization by reflection and scattering, 5.3 double refraction and Huygen's explanation, production and analysis of polarized light, 5.4 optical activity, 5.5 Laurent half shade polarimeter and its applications

#### 6. Dispersion and Scattering:

6.1 Dispersion of a Prism, 6.2 Normal and anomalous dispersion, 6.3 Cauchy's equation, scattering of light, 6.4 Scattering by small particles, 6.5 Scattering and Refractive Index, 6.6 Raman Effect

#### 7. Lasers:

7.1 Spontaneous and stimulated emission, 7.2 conditions for laser action, population inversion, optical pumping, 7.3 Ruby and He-Ne lasers and applications

#### 8. Holography:

8.1 Basic principles of holography, 8.2 applications

### modern physics

#### 9. Atomic Structure

9.1 The nuclear atom, 9.2 Rutherford scattering and its conclusions, 9.3 limitations of Rutherford model of atom, electron orbits, 9.4 atomic spectra, 9.5 the Bohr's atom, energy level diagram and spectra of hydrogen atom, 9.6 Frank-Hertz experiment and limitations of Bohr's model, 9.7 the Sommerfeld atom

#### 10. Many Electron Atom:

10.1 Electron spin, 10.2 Stern-Gerlach experiment, 10.3 Pauli's exclusion principle, 10.4 shells and subshells of electrons, 10.5 vector atom model, 10.6 LS coupling and s, p, d, f notation

#### 11. Atomic Spectra:

11.1 Fine structures of H, Na, He and Hg, 11.2 Paschen-Back effect, 11.3 Stark effect, 11.4 normal and 11.5 anomalous Zeeman effect

#### 12. Particle properties of waves:

12.1 Electromagnetic waves and its interaction with matter, 12.2 absorption, 12.3 photoelectric effect, 12.4 Compton scattering, 12.5 pair production, 12.6 photons and gravity

#### 13. X-ray Spectrum:

13.1 Characteristic X-ray, 13.2 X-ray diffraction and spectrometer, 13.3 fine structure of X-ray transitions, 13.4 Moseley's law and its application

#### 14. Nuclear Structure:

14.1 Proton-electron and proton-neutron hypothesis, 14.2 nuclear composition and its properties (mass, charge, density, magnetic and electric properties), 14.3 nuclear stability and binding energy, 14.4 Meson theory of nuclear forces

#### 15. Nuclear Transformations:

15.1 Radioactivity, law of radioactive disintegration, 15.2 law of successive disintegration, 15.3 half-life, mean life, natural radioactive series, 15.4 alpha, beta and gamma ray spectra, 15.5 absorption of alpha particles, range, 15.6 straggling and stopping power, 15.7 theory of alpha decay, 15.8 neutrino hypothesis of betadecay, 15.9 biological effects of ionizing radiation

#### 16. Particle Detectors and Accelerators:

16.1 Ionization chamber, 16.2 G. M. counter, 16.3 scintillation counter, 16.4 bubble chamber, 16.5 Cerenkov detectors, 16.6 semiconductor detectors, 16.7 linear accelerator, 16.8 cyclotron, 16.9 synchrocyclotron, 16.10 betatron, the 16.11 LHC project

### electonics

#### 17. Network Theorems:

17.1 Superposition Theorem, 17.2 Ideal constant-voltage source, 17.3 Ideal constant current source, 17.4 Thevenin's and Norton's Theorem and their applications, 17.5 maximum power transfer theorem

#### 18. Semiconductor and Diodes:

18.1 Review of semiconductor, types of semiconductor, 18.3 energy bands in semiconductors, 18.3 Different types of diodes, P-N junction diode, characteristics, 18.4 application of junction diode as half wave and full wave rectifier, 18.5 bridge rectifier, R-C filter, ripple factors, 18.6 zener diode and it’s application in voltage regulation circuit

#### 19. Bipolar Junction Transistors:

19.1 PNP and NPN transistors, transistor input, output and transfer characteristics in different configurations, 19.2 alpha and beta of transistor, 19.3 transistor biasing, load lines, Q-point, optimum Q-point, bias stabilization, stability factor, 19.4 CB, CE, and CC amplifiers and their DC and AC equivalent circuits, 19.5 amplifier gain (voltage, current, power) calculations, 19.6 AC-input and output impendances of different amplifiers, 19.7 phase inversion in CE amplifier

#### 20. Amplifiers:

20.1 Cascaded amplifiers, 20.2 R-C coupled amplifier, 20.3 overall voltage gain, 20.4 frequency response, 20.5 power amplifiers.

#### 21. Operational amplifiers:

21.1 Differential amplifiers, ac analysis of differential amplifier, 21.2 differential gain, input impedance, common mode gain, 21.3 common mode rejection ratio (CMRR), 21.4 Operational amplifier, 21.5 inverting and non-inverting mode of Op-Amp

#### 22. Feedback Amplifier:

22.1 Introduction of feedback and their types, 22.2 Negative feedback and positive feedback, advantages of negative voltage feedback, 22.3 different types of feedback amplifier: voltage-series feedback, 22.4 voltage shunt feedback, current series feedback, current shunt feedbac

#### 23. Oscillators:

23.1 Barkhausen criterion, 23.2 working principle of Hartely, Colpitt’s and phase shift oscillators, 23.3 Multivibrators and their working principle

#### 24. FET and UJT:

24.1 Field effect transistor, its characteristics, 24.2 FET as an amplifier with infinite input impedance. 24.3 Unijunction transistor and its characteristics, 24.4 UJT as a relaxation oscillator

#### 25. Digital Electronics and Logic gates:

25.1 Decimal, Binary, Octal and Hexadecimal number of systems and their inter-conversion, 25.2 Addition and subtraction of binary numbers, 25.3 Boolean algebra and de Morgan's theorem, 25.4 OR, AND, NOT, NOR, NAND, X-OR and X-NOR gates NOR and NAND gate as basic building block, 25.5 Half adders and full adders, 25.6 RS, JK, D-flip flops