These syllabus are the updated syllabus and taken from the tribhuwan university Nepal. The syllabus maynot be same to other universities.
Tribhuvan University Institute of Science & Technology
Four Year B. Sc. (Geology) Curriculum
Course Title : Petrology, Paleontology & Historical Geology, and Sedimentology
Nature of the Course: Theory
Pass Marks: 35
Petrology ( 40 marks)
(a) Igneous Petrology
Nature and scope of petrology, difference between petrology and petrography, General classification of rocks: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic, general characteristics of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.
Magma: Definition, composition, physico-chemical constitution, primary magma, magmatism in different tectonic environments
Evolution of magmas
Magma differentiation: fractional crystallization, other differentiation mechanisms, Magmatic mixing and assimilation.
Forms and structures of igneous rocks
Intrusive igneous rocks: intrusive rocks and their relation to geological structures, intrusive forms, method of emplacement of intrusive rocks. Extrusive igneous rock: their structures and forms
Textures and microstructures of igneous rocks
Crystallinity, granularity, crystal shapes and mutual relations among minerals, glasses.
Crystallization of silicate melts
Unary and binary systems. Phase relations and textures, Ternary systems: Simple and complex, the effects of pressure on melting and crystallization of magma.
Classification and description of igneous rocks
The IUGS classification system, chemical classification, characteristics of common igneous rocks: plutonic and volcanic, description of common igneous rocks.
Formation of magma
Formation of magma: Rift zones, melting processes: partial melting, observations at the Mid-Oceanic Ridges.
Igneous rocks in different tectonic settings
Igneous rocks at continental margins: Ophiolite suite, calcalkaline and tholeiite groups, plutonic rocks: batholiths related to subduction zones. Continental igneous rocks: gabbroic layered intrusions, anorthosite, alkali basalt and nephelinite, carbonatite, kimberlite and related rocks.
(b) Metamorphic Petrology
Definition, types of metamorphism: regional, contact, burial, cataclastic, progressive, retrograde, inverse.
Definition, recognition in the field, distribution and nomenclature, structures and textures of metamorphic rocks. Shape of minerals, growth and mutual relation of minerals, petrographic descriptions of slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss, amphibolite, marble, quartzite, hornfels, serpentinite, granulite and eclogite. Control of metamorphism: pressure, temperature and composition in metamorphism.
Initiation of metamorphism, contact metamorphism, metamorphism of igneous rocks, submarine metamorphism, porphyroblasts, preferred orientation, metamorphic differentiation: compositional gradient, temperature gradient, differentiation by deformation, metamorphic reactions, the upper limit of metamorphism
Index minerals, zones in contact metamorphism, isograds: Definition, dependence on temperature and pressures.
Metamorphic facies and graphic representation
Definition of facies, evolution of concept of metamorphic facies. major metamorphic facies, phase rule, relationship of zones, grades and facies, graphic representation of ACF, AKF and AFM diagrams.
Mineralogical phase rule
Invariant, bivariant reaction, invariant point and their significance (Triple point of Al2SiO5 and those in metamorphism of argillaceous rocks). Mineral variation related to initial rock composition: Carbonate rocks, mud rocks, mafic igneous rocks and tuffs, ultramafic rocks.
(c) Sedimentary Petrology
Distribution of sedimentary rocks in time and space, formation of sediments, sediments and climate, tectonic setting of sediment accumulations.
Size of sedimentary particles, Shape of sedimentary particles, concept of textural maturity.
Erosional, depositional and synsedimentary deformational structures and their significance.
Classification of Sedimentary rocks
Classification based on texture and composition, genetic classification; Definitions, texture and structures, composition, and classification of sandstones, conglormerates, mudrocks, limestones and dolostones. Introduction to other sedimentary rocks: evaporites, bedded cherts, bedded phosphate rocks, bedded iron deposits.
Diagenesis of sediments
Diagenetic stages and regimes, diagenetic processes: compaction, cementation, dissolution, replacement, recrystallization, authigenesis
Paleontology and Historical Geology (30 marks)
Aim, scope and objectives of paleontology, fossils and fossilization, index fossil, types of fossils, their mode of preservation, Importance of fossils, life through geological ages, organic evolution, evolution of life, Species: definition, concept and method of nomenclature, functional morphology
Classification, geographical and geological distributions, morphology, Evolution and Evolutionary trend, Phylum Protozoa (Foraminfera) Coelenterate (Anthozoa), Arthropoda (Trilobite), Brayozoa, Brachiopod, Mollusca (Bivalve, Gastropod, Cephalopoda), Echinodermata (Echinoidea), Hemichordata (Graptoloidea), Introduction of animal microfossils and applications (Radiolaria, diatom,Ostracoda/ Conodont), Introduction to trace fossils and their applications.
Vertebrate Fossils and Paleobotany
Geological history through time of the following vertebrate groups: Fishes, Amphibians, Reptiles, Aves and Mammals, Equidae, Proboscides and Hominidae Plant fossils: Plant life through time (Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Sphenopsida and Pteropsida) Gondwana flora, Evolution of Angiosperms. Introduction to plant microfossils (pollen and spores, diatoms) and applications.
Introduction to Historical Geology
Scope, aim, method of study, development of historical geology, problem of historical geology, the interrealtion of historical geology to other geological sciences, the geological time scale.
Origin of the Earth and life
Origin of solar system, evolution of the Earth, development of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere, theory of origin of life, the first sign of life on the Earth, index fossils.
Time on rock record
Introduction to relative and absolute time, Unit and measurement of geological time, geochronology, relative age determination, time stratigraphic units, introduction of lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy, method of correlation.
The main tectonic unit of the Earth's crust and their evolution
Principal tectonic units of the present continents, the tectonic elements of oceans, tectonic evolution of the earth's crust.
Principles of paleoenvironment, Paleogeography, Paleotectonics
Introduction to marine and non-marine environments, Study of paleo-environments including the influence of organisms on sediments, methods of paleogeographic reconstruction, epirogenic movement of the crust, the analysis of the geological sections as a method of reconstructing crustal movements, methods of reconstruction of plaeotectonics
The earliest (Precambrian) history of the earth's crust
The duration of the Precambrian era and the earliest known state of the crust, Development of Archean Cratons, the Precambrian shield rocks, Paleogeography during Precambrian, and Precambrian glaciations
Geological history of Phanerozoic eon
Plate position and motion, organic evolution, paleogeography and the crustal movements during the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Palaeogene and Neogene
Definition of Sedimentology, History and development of sedimentology, Sedimentary rocks in space and time. Scope of sedimentology
Physical processes: Fluid flow, Reynolds Number, Transport mechanisms: bedload and suspended load transport, transport in solution, Froude Number, Flow regimes and their significance, Flow regime and bed-forms, stream power and water depth, depth-velocity diagram. Subareal and subaqueous transport: Lahar, debris flows, turbidity currents and resulting bedforms
Chemical processes: Redox potential, pH, Eh-pH diagram, Geochemical Fence Diagram, Chemical processes of sedimentation: Dissolution, precipitation, formation of nodules and concretions
Biological processes: Metabolic process and hard parts generation, baffling and trapping, boring and chipping, pelletization, symbiotic relations among organisms, and microbial processes in generation of sediments.
Concept and classification of depositional environment
Continental Environments: Depositional settings, introduction to sedimentation processes of Fluvial, Lacustrine, Glacial and Eolian deposits.
Transitional Environments: Depositional setting, introduction to sedimentation processes of Deltaic, Estuarine, Barrier Beach Complex, and Tidal deposits.
Marine Environments: Depositional settings, introduction to sedimentation processes of Shallow Marine and Deep Marine deposits.