Geology syllabus

Syllabus fromBachelorNote

These syllabus are the updated syllabus and taken from the tribhuwan university Nepal. The syllabus maynot be same to other universities.

Tribhuvan University Institute of Science & Technology

Four Year B. Sc. (Geology) Curriculum

Course Title : Petrology, Paleontology & Historical Geology, and Sedimentology
Course No:GEO.201
Nature of the Course: Theory
Year: IIyear
Full Marks:100
Pass Marks: 35

Petrology ( 40 marks)



(a) Igneous Petrology

Introduction

Nature and scope of petrology, difference between petrology and petrography, General classification of rocks: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic, general characteristics of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.

Magma

Magma: Definition, composition, physico-chemical constitution, primary magma, magmatism in different tectonic environments

Evolution of magmas

Magma differentiation: fractional crystallization, other differentiation mechanisms, Magmatic mixing and assimilation.

Forms and structures of igneous rocks

Intrusive igneous rocks: intrusive rocks and their relation to geological structures, intrusive forms, method of emplacement of intrusive rocks. Extrusive igneous rock: their structures and forms

Textures and microstructures of igneous rocks

Crystallinity, granularity, crystal shapes and mutual relations among minerals, glasses.

Crystallization of silicate melts

Unary and binary systems. Phase relations and textures, Ternary systems: Simple and complex, the effects of pressure on melting and crystallization of magma.

Classification and description of igneous rocks

The IUGS classification system, chemical classification, characteristics of common igneous rocks: plutonic and volcanic, description of common igneous rocks.

Formation of magma

Formation of magma: Rift zones, melting processes: partial melting, observations at the Mid-Oceanic Ridges.

Igneous rocks in different tectonic settings

Igneous rocks at continental margins: Ophiolite suite, calcalkaline and tholeiite groups, plutonic rocks: batholiths related to subduction zones. Continental igneous rocks: gabbroic layered intrusions, anorthosite, alkali basalt and nephelinite, carbonatite, kimberlite and related rocks.

(b) Metamorphic Petrology

Metamorphism

Definition, types of metamorphism: regional, contact, burial, cataclastic, progressive, retrograde, inverse.

Metamorphic rocks

Definition, recognition in the field, distribution and nomenclature, structures and textures of metamorphic rocks. Shape of minerals, growth and mutual relation of minerals, petrographic descriptions of slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss, amphibolite, marble, quartzite, hornfels, serpentinite, granulite and eclogite. Control of metamorphism: pressure, temperature and composition in metamorphism.

Metamorphic processes

Initiation of metamorphism, contact metamorphism, metamorphism of igneous rocks, submarine metamorphism, porphyroblasts, preferred orientation, metamorphic differentiation: compositional gradient, temperature gradient, differentiation by deformation, metamorphic reactions, the upper limit of metamorphism

Metamorphic zones

Index minerals, zones in contact metamorphism, isograds: Definition, dependence on temperature and pressures.

Metamorphic facies and graphic representation

Definition of facies, evolution of concept of metamorphic facies. major metamorphic facies, phase rule, relationship of zones, grades and facies, graphic representation of ACF, AKF and AFM diagrams.

Mineralogical phase rule

Invariant, bivariant reaction, invariant point and their significance (Triple point of Al2SiO5 and those in metamorphism of argillaceous rocks). Mineral variation related to initial rock composition: Carbonate rocks, mud rocks, mafic igneous rocks and tuffs, ultramafic rocks.

(c) Sedimentary Petrology

Introduction

Distribution of sedimentary rocks in time and space, formation of sediments, sediments and climate, tectonic setting of sediment accumulations.

Sedimentary textures

Size of sedimentary particles, Shape of sedimentary particles, concept of textural maturity.

Sedimentary structures

Erosional, depositional and synsedimentary deformational structures and their significance.

Classification of Sedimentary rocks

Classification based on texture and composition, genetic classification; Definitions, texture and structures, composition, and classification of sandstones, conglormerates, mudrocks, limestones and dolostones. Introduction to other sedimentary rocks: evaporites, bedded cherts, bedded phosphate rocks, bedded iron deposits.

Diagenesis of sediments

Diagenetic stages and regimes, diagenetic processes: compaction, cementation, dissolution, replacement, recrystallization, authigenesis

Paleontology and Historical Geology (30 marks)

Introduction

Aim, scope and objectives of paleontology, fossils and fossilization, index fossil, types of fossils, their mode of preservation, Importance of fossils, life through geological ages, organic evolution, evolution of life, Species: definition, concept and method of nomenclature, functional morphology

Invertebrate Fossils

Classification, geographical and geological distributions, morphology, Evolution and Evolutionary trend, Phylum Protozoa (Foraminfera) Coelenterate (Anthozoa), Arthropoda (Trilobite), Brayozoa, Brachiopod, Mollusca (Bivalve, Gastropod, Cephalopoda), Echinodermata (Echinoidea), Hemichordata (Graptoloidea), Introduction of animal microfossils and applications (Radiolaria, diatom,Ostracoda/ Conodont), Introduction to trace fossils and their applications.

Vertebrate Fossils and Paleobotany

Geological history through time of the following vertebrate groups: Fishes, Amphibians, Reptiles, Aves and Mammals, Equidae, Proboscides and Hominidae Plant fossils: Plant life through time (Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Sphenopsida and Pteropsida) Gondwana flora, Evolution of Angiosperms. Introduction to plant microfossils (pollen and spores, diatoms) and applications.

Introduction to Historical Geology

Scope, aim, method of study, development of historical geology, problem of historical geology, the interrealtion of historical geology to other geological sciences, the geological time scale.

Origin of the Earth and life

Origin of solar system, evolution of the Earth, development of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere, theory of origin of life, the first sign of life on the Earth, index fossils.

Time on rock record

Introduction to relative and absolute time, Unit and measurement of geological time, geochronology, relative age determination, time stratigraphic units, introduction of lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy, method of correlation.

The main tectonic unit of the Earth's crust and their evolution

Principal tectonic units of the present continents, the tectonic elements of oceans, tectonic evolution of the earth's crust.

Principles of paleoenvironment, Paleogeography, Paleotectonics

Introduction to marine and non-marine environments, Study of paleo-environments including the influence of organisms on sediments, methods of paleogeographic reconstruction, epirogenic movement of the crust, the analysis of the geological sections as a method of reconstructing crustal movements, methods of reconstruction of plaeotectonics

The earliest (Precambrian) history of the earth's crust

The duration of the Precambrian era and the earliest known state of the crust, Development of Archean Cratons, the Precambrian shield rocks, Paleogeography during Precambrian, and Precambrian glaciations

Geological history of Phanerozoic eon

Plate position and motion, organic evolution, paleogeography and the crustal movements during the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Palaeogene and Neogene

Sedimentology(30 marks)

Introduction

Definition of Sedimentology, History and development of sedimentology, Sedimentary rocks in space and time. Scope of sedimentology

Sedimentary processes

Physical processes: Fluid flow, Reynolds Number, Transport mechanisms: bedload and suspended load transport, transport in solution, Froude Number, Flow regimes and their significance, Flow regime and bed-forms, stream power and water depth, depth-velocity diagram. Subareal and subaqueous transport: Lahar, debris flows, turbidity currents and resulting bedforms

Chemical processes: Redox potential, pH, Eh-pH diagram, Geochemical Fence Diagram, Chemical processes of sedimentation: Dissolution, precipitation, formation of nodules and concretions

Biological processes: Metabolic process and hard parts generation, baffling and trapping, boring and chipping, pelletization, symbiotic relations among organisms, and microbial processes in generation of sediments.

Depositional environments

Concept and classification of depositional environment

Continental Environments: Depositional settings, introduction to sedimentation processes of Fluvial, Lacustrine, Glacial and Eolian deposits.

Transitional Environments: Depositional setting, introduction to sedimentation processes of Deltaic, Estuarine, Barrier Beach Complex, and Tidal deposits.

Marine Environments: Depositional settings, introduction to sedimentation processes of Shallow Marine and Deep Marine deposits.