These syllabus are the updated syllabus and taken from the tribhuwan university Nepal. The syllabus maynot be same to other universities.
Tribhuvan University Institute of Science & Technology
Four Year B. Sc. (Botany) Curriculum
Course Title : Diversity, Structure, Function and Development of Angiosperms (Angiosperms, Physiology, Cytology and genetics, Embryology and Anatomy)
Nature of the Course: Theory
Full Marks: 100
Pass Marks: 35
Course Objectives (BOT 201 & BOT 202)
- To introduce the concept of internal and external organization in higher plants
- To highlight the impact of environment on structure and functions
- To study physiological processes in plants.
Unit I. Angiosperms
Principles and Practices
General features of angiosperms; Definition of taxonomy and systematics; Basic components of taxonomy (Identification, Description, Nomenclature and Classification); Aims and scope of taxonomy.
2. Plant morphology in relation to taxonomy
Morphological structural terminology of angiosperms applied as taxonomy evidence focusing representative species- Teaching materials- Charts.
General terminology of vegetative parts: Roots (types); Stems (durations, habits and types of both general and modified stems); Leaves (parts, venation, phyllotaxy, types, shapes, margins, apex, base, surface, etc.); Stipules (types).
General terminology of reproductive parts: Inflorescences (types); Bracts (types); Flowers (parts, nature, position of ovary, placentation); Fruits (parts, types)
3. Plant collection and Herbarium techniques
Introduction and importance of herbarium (K, K-W, E, BM, Cal, TI, KATH, TUCH); Materials needed for collecting specimens; Methods of collecting specimens; Recording field data
Preparing herbarium specimens: Procedures for pressing; Drying; Mounting; Labeling; Storage; Preserving specimens
Ethics for collecting specimens at field; Handling herbarium specimens
4. Nomenclature and Classification
Define rank and taxa; Ranking of taxa in taxonomic hierarchy (recognized by International Code of Nomenclature such as kingdom, division, class, order, family, genus and species as principal ranks and subphylum, subclass, suborder, subfamily, etc., as secondary ranks)
Binomial nomenclature; International Code of Nomenclature (ICN); Principles and application of the Code of Nomenclature (scientific name, author citation, nomenclature type/ type method, priority of publication, conservation of names, name changes, basionym, synonym, valid publication, rejection of names
5. Principles of classification
History and development of classification systems of angiosperms giving examples of systems in PreDarwinian Classification (Theophrastus, Carlous Linnaeus, A.P. de Candolle, G. Bentham and J.D. Hooker) and Post Darwinian system (Adolf Engler and Karl Prantl, John Hutchinson, Arthur Cronquist, etc.) System based on Darwin concept
6. Major classification systems of angiosperms with merits and demerits:
Artificial system-Carlous Linnaeus 1753, introduction, contributions, concept and outline classification
Natural system-George Bentham and Joseph Dalton Hooker 1862-1883, introduction, concept, outline classification up to Cohorts (recent Orders) giving one family as an example in each order, merits and demerits
7. Phylogenetic system:
Earlier system (Engler and Diels 1936 - refinement of Engler and Prantl's system by Engler and Diels): Introduction, concept, outline classification up to major orders showing evolutionary trends, merits and demerits
8. Contemporary system:
Recent phylogenetic system (Cronquist system1988): Introduction, concept and characteristic features of classification of up to subclass showing evolutionary trends
9. Basic concept of Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG):
Background and concepts of APG 1998; APG II 2003; APG III 2009; Showing clades and eudicots of APG II 2003
10. Systematic Study:
Describing distinguishing features (each subclass, order and family); Classification (Arthur Cronquist's system, 1988); Range of vegetative structure (habit, stem, leaf); Reproductive (inflorescence, flower, fruit) structures; Economic importance (consider local species too) and Phylogeny (affinity) of following representative families of Magnoliophyta (angiosperms): Magnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Moraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Malvaceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Araceae, Cyperaceae, Orchidaceae
Unit II. Plant Physiology
1. Water Relations of Plants:
Water availability in soil; water potential; movement of water: diffusion, osmosis; transport of water in plants: absorption by roots, root to shoot transport, transpiration (mechanism and factors affecting transpiration), cohesion-tension theory of ascent of sap; water stress: effects and plant's response.
2. Plant Nutrients:
Nutrient availability in soil; nutrient absorption by root; macro and micronutrients: roles in plant and symptoms of deficiencies; hydroponics.
3. Plant Development:
Growth and differentiation; Tissue culture and organogenesis; Polarity; Photomorphogenesis; Photoperiodism; Seed physiology: Seed germination and mobilization of reserved food, seed dormancy, vernalization; senescence.
4. Plant Hormones:
Concept of hormone; physiological roles of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinnins, ethylene, abscissic acid, and brassinosteroids; commercial uses of plant hormones.
Anabolism and Catabolism; Photosynthesis: Radiant energy, ultrastructure of chloroplast, photosynthetic pigments, mechanisms (light reaction, and dark reaction/CO2 assimilation - C3, C4 and CAM), factors affecting photosynthesis; photorespiration; respiration: ultrastructure of mitochondria, anaerobic and aerobic respiration, glycolysis, Kreb's cycle, respiratory chain; chemiosmotic mechanism of ATP synthesis.
Unit III. Cytology and Genetics
structural organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Ultrastructure and function of cell organelles; cell inclusions; physical and chemical nature of chromosomes; cell division: cell cycle, karyokinesis (amitosis, mitosis and meiosis) and cytokinesis.
Physical structure, type and functions of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA); DNA replication; gene structure, gene expression and regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Mendelian genetics: Mendel's laws of inheritance, gene interactions (incomplete dominance, codominance, epistasis), linkage and crossing over, sex linked inheritance. Sources of genetic variation: gene and chromosomal mutation (chromosomal aberrations, euploidy, aneuploidy and polyploidy). Concept of plant breeding (hybridization).
Unit IV. Embryology
Structure and development of microsporangium, microsporogenesis and the male gametophyte; structure and development of megasporangium, megasporogenesis and the female gametophyte; pollination and fertilization; development and types of endosperm; embryogenesis in typical dicot and monocot plants; polyembryony; apomixes; experimental embryology; palynology: introduction and its scope
Unit V. Plant anatomy
1. Tissues and tissue system:
structure and functions of meristematic and permanent tissues (simple, complex and special tissues); shoot apical meristem (histological organizations in monocot and dicot stem); root apical meristem (histological organization in monocot and dicot root); theories of apical meristem differentiation.
2. Primary structures and functions:
epidermis: uniseriate and multiseriate, epidermal appendages and their morphological types; primary structure of typical dicot stem, root and leaf; primary structure of typical monocot stem, root and leaf; cambium: origin, structure and functions.
3. Secondary structures and functions:
Origin and structure of secondary xylem and phloem; secondary growth in dicot stem and root; anomalous secondary growth (dicot- Boerhaavia, Nyctanthes and Achyranthes; monocot- Dracaena); annual and growth rings; dendrochronology (concept and application); heart wood and sapwood; periderm; wound healing; leaf abscission; nodal anatomy; floral anatomy.