# Physical Meteorology and General Hydrology syllabus

## Syllabus fromBachelorNote

These syllabus are the updated syllabus and taken from the tribhuwan university Nepal. The syllabus maynot be same to other universities.

### Course Objectives:

This course provides basic knowledge of the quantitative treatment of the energy processes in the atmosphere. The relationship between the atmospheric variables is derived in the form of basic equations. Some of the processes going on the atmosphere are treated quantitatively. In General Hydrology this course is providing the general hydrological processes

### Course content:

#### Meteorological Variables:

Introduction to the conventional measurements of different parameters (Rain gauges, Thermometer, Anemometers, Evaporation pan, Solar radiation, Sunshine duration, Soil temperature, Dry bulb and wet bulb temperature), Automatic Weather Station, Weather Satellite, Radar, Radiosonde and Pilot Balloon

#### The atmosphere:

Physical foundation (Introduction of thermodynamics, radiation, Newton's law), units and dimension, composition of the atmosphere (The composition of dry air, Water vapor in the atmosphere, Carbon dioxide, Interplanetary Gas), Vertical Division of the atmosphere (Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere and Exosphere).

#### Atmospheric Pressure:

The nature and units of the atmospheric pressure, the measurement of atmospheric pressure, Mercury barometers, corrections for standard conditions, Aneroid barometers, barographs, Variation of pressure with altitude, Reduction of pressure to standard levels.

#### Equation of state

Variable of state, Derivation of Charles Law and Boyle's Law, equation of state of an ideal gas, mixture of gases

#### Heat and Energy:

specific heat capacity, internal energy, conservation of energy, adiabatic processes, Poisson's equation, entropy and the second law of thermodynamics, Thermodynamics of moist air (equation of state of moist air, changes of phase and latent heat, The Clausius-Clapeyron equation, adiabatic processes of saturated air.

#### Moisture variable:

Brief introduction of vapor pressure, absolute humidity, mixing ratio, specific humidity, relative humidity, virtual temperature, dew point temperature, lifting condensation level (LCL), wet-bulb temperature, wet-bulb potential temperature, equivalent temperature and equivalent potential temperature.

#### Thermodynamic diagram:

Principle of equal area transformation, the Emagram and the Tephigram.

#### Hydrostatic Equilibrium

Hydrostatic equation, hydrostatic of special atmosphere (the homogenous atmosphere, the isothermal atmosphere, the constant lapse rate atmosphere, the dry adiabatic atmosphere and the US standard atmosphere.

#### Hydrostatic stability and convection:

Dry and moist adiabatic lapse rate, the parcel method, the slice method.

### Group B: General Hydrology (Theory)

#### Introduction:

Definition, and scope of hydrology, hydrological cycle and water balance equations, development of hydrological study in Nepal

#### Precipitation:

Causes, forms and types of precipitation, Measurement of Rainfall (Recording, nonrecording, rain data logger, weather radar, totalisers), network design (optimum number of rain-gauge station, ideal location), estimation of missing data (arithmetic, normal ratio, weighted average of four station, interpolation from isohyetal maps, regression method), double mass curve, computation of average rainfall (isohyetal, Thiessen polygon, arithmetic), drought, history and status of precipitation measurement in Nepal.

#### Hydrological Losses:

Initial losses (Interception and depression storage) Evaporation process Meteorological parameters (Radiation, Temperature, Vapor pressure, Humidity, Wind), Energy Budget methods and Mass transfer approach (Dalton's law), Evaporimeters, Evapotranspiration, Actual evapotranspiration and Lysimeters, Potential Evapotranspiration (Thornthwaite, Blaney Criddle, Penman's equation), Infiltration, Factors affecting Infiltration, Horton's equation, Infiltration indices (ะค and W), Infiltrometers.

#### Surface Runoff :

Drainage basins and its quantitative characteristics, Factors affecting runoff from a catchment, Rainfall - Runoff relationship, Stream gauging (selection of sites, types of gauges and measurement), Stream flow measurement by area velocity method (current meters, and floats), Stream flow computation by slope area method, Development of Rating curve and its uses, Estimation of monthly flows from rainfall.

#### Hydrograph:

Hydrograph concept, factors affecting of hydrograph and shape of hydrograph, component of hydrograph, base flow separation, effective rainfall, theory of unit hydrograph, assumption, uses and limitation of unit hydrograph, derivation of unit hydrograph.

#### Ground water:

Introduction (zoning of subsurface), occurrence of ground water, types of aquifers, aquifer parameters (porosity, specific yield, specific retention, storage coefficient, permeability, transmissivity) ground water basin, Darcy's law its range validity, field measurement of permeability.

#### Snow and Glacial Hydrology:

Introduction of snow and ice, snow measurement and water equivalent, physical properties and metamorphism of snow, densification of snow, snowline, snow albedo, snow avalanche, snow cover delineate and snow cover determination, snow runoff and snow melt, Heat budget on snow, definition and types of glacier and Himalayan glaciers, zones and equilibrium line in a glacier and their importance, glacier formation, mass balance and measurement, , glacier ice and debris, snow accumulation, ablation zone, mass balance of snow, snow and glacier fed rivers of Nepal, glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF) historical background, mechanism of GLOF and mitigation measures, development, identification and prioritization of potentially dangerous glacial lakes, climate and glacier response, remote sensing of glacier and glacial lake.